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Atom attacking

Through out my learning at university, I never thought of the difficulty of trying to break a bond or create a new one. 

Right now it gets harder when i do a stand alone reaction. 

Suppose I have a benzene attached to it 2 groups. Say an alcohol and primary amino group. 

Lets assume that this amino group has an ester or aldhyde. If i tried to substiute - oh with an HX like HCl, wouldn't this acid attack the amino or aldhyde attached to amino?

In such a complex molcule, how can i know what atom is going to attack which atom?

I do not expect a full answer since the question seems to me very general, but it will be big help if an answer has key words to spdcific concepts I forgot or missed in chemistry learning journey. 

Thanks in advanced. 

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