Benefits of forced degradation test
Purpose of forced degradation test
The purpose of the forced degradation study is to understand the degradation products and degradation pathways of drugs under different destruction conditions. The forced degradation test can provide a useful reference for the establishment of analytical methods, the formulation of instructions and the determination of formulation design.
Non-covalent aggregates are usually the result of mechanical stress (like shaking, stirring, rotating, pumping), and aggregation can also occur after repeated freezing and thawing, heating, or exposure to acidic pH environments.
Aggregation can also be covalent in nature, such as chemical bonding between molecules, which are not dissociable during buffer exchange. These chemical bonds are usually formed by rearranged disulfide bonds or other altered intramolecular chemical linkages. They are usually the result of amino acid residues reacting with trace metals (copper or iron) or incomplete protein reduction.
The side chains of methionine, cysteine, histidine, tryptophan or tyrosine residues are prone to oxidation, with methionine being the most reactive residue. Oxidation can alter the physicochemical properties of proteins, such as folding and subunit association. Oxidative conditions are formed primarily by exposure to atmospheric oxygen, in the presence of light, heat, moisture, agitation or exposure to oxidants. Deamidation is the hydrolysis of asparagine or glutamine into free carboxylic acid residues, usually due to changes in pH, ionic strength, temperature and humidity of lyophilized proteins. The overall effect of chemical modifications to a single amino acid residue depends on its location in the protein and the specific role of the residue in the protein's functional and active site.
Illumination photolysis by exposure to light involves and affects free radicals of many functional groups, such as carbonyl groups, which can lead to oxidation, aggregation, or cleavage of peptide bonds. Photolysis is caused by exposure to a certain amount of photoradiation, usually in the form of ultraviolet radiation.
Hydrolysis (cleavage) is the breaking of peptide bonds between amino acid residues, releasing smaller peptide chains. The peptide bonds of Asp-Pro and Asp-Gly are the most easily hydrolyzed. Hydrolysis is mainly caused by exposure to acidic or basic pH.
CD Formulation is a leading manufacturer of a large variety of excipients. Driven by the latest science and technology, it has grown to be a reliable source for the pharmaceutical industry, offering not only rich collection excipients but also a wide range of preformulation, formulation, analytical and custom pharmaceutical excipients services. Always at the forefront of innovation, CD Formulation aims to address the challenges arising from pharmaceutical formulation, and in a much broader sense, hopes to advance the global medical business.
in the context of degradation testing, the purpose is not to achieve reduction, but rather to intentionally induce degradation in a sample under exaggerated conditions. The goal is to understand the stability and degradation pathways of the substance or product being tested.
Forced degradation testing involves subjecting the sample to various stress conditions such as high temperature, light exposure, humidity, acidic or alkaline pH, oxidation, and hydrolysis. These stress conditions accelerate the degradation processes that would typically occur over an extended period of time under normal storage conditions.
The objectives of forced degradation testing are to identify the degradation products, assess the degradation pathways, evaluate the stability of the substance or product, and develop appropriate stability-indicating methods for quality control purposes. This information is crucial for determining proper storage conditions, establishing shelf life, and ensuring the safety, efficacy, and quality of the substance or product.
It's important to note that forced degradation testing is not performed with the intention of achieving reduction or improving the sample. Instead, it aims to simulate and understand the degradation behavior under extreme conditions to gather valuable information for stability assessment and product development.