I have read a book "The Quantum Universe" written by Brian Cox & Jeff Forshaw and published from Penguin Books.
In the book, I have encountered an astonishing sentence. It is,
"Quantum theory is,...,esoteric,... Esoteric because it describes a world in which a particle really can be in several places at once and moves from one place to another by exploring the entire Universe simultaneously." (line 12-15 on page 2) Quotation (1)
Oh, boy! What a fantastic expression is this!
It does resolve nicely the very conundrum which we always meet when we have the trouble of how to interpret the meaning of the probability density distribution function of an electron in a hydrogen atom. It has been really a serious conundrum for me.
For example, think of a 3d state of a hydrogen atom.
The electronic cloud is composed from 8 island around the proton. Then how can we imagine the elecgtron's motion. The vacuum sea sourounding the 8 islands are space region where the existence of the electron is highly inhibited. If we assume that at some instance the electron is in one of the 8 island, then how will the electron can go to the other one of the islands?
The quotation (1) clearly gives us the answer: The electron can hop, I repeat, the electron can hop, over a distance in space directly!
It is really esoteric and at the same time interesting for all of us.
Then, we wiil be puzzled if we think a group of electrons all attracted by single nucleus.
How does each electron hop spacially? How does the entire electronic cloud behave?
The quotation (1) affects your chemical view or chemistry,doesn't it?
Thank you for reading.
A quantum lover
January 22, 2013
Let me mention about biochemistry.
It is the usual glycolysis pathway in which an enzyme called pyruvate kinase appears.
The pyruvate kinase is known to have a molecular weight of about 250,000.
Each amino acid that constitutes that enzyme has each number of nuclei and number of electrons as shown
Amino acid Number of nuclei includeds in the side chain number of electrons in the side chain
Gly 1 1
Ala 4 9
Val 10 25
Leu 13 33
Lie 13 29
Ser ５ 11
Thr 8 25
Asp 7 30
Glu 10 39
Asn 8 31
Gln 11 39
Arg 17 55
Lsy 15 41
Cys 5 25
Met 11 41
Phe 14 49
Try 15 58
Trp 18 69
His 11 36
Pro 17 63
Averaging the nuclei number per amino acid, and averaging the electron number per aminoacid yield the following numbers.
<Number of nuclei of side chain>=14.65
<Number of electrons of side chain>=35.45
Each amino acid has -CONH- backbone. This has 4 nuclei and 22 electrons.
So that an average amino residue has 18.65 nuclei and 57.45 electrons.(1)
The average molecular weight of an aminoresidue can be inferred by doubling the number of the residues.
(Carbon has atomic weight 12, and Nitrogen has 14 atomic weight, and oxygen has 16 atomic weight and so on.) 18.65 times 2 = 37.3.
Now, if we divide the pyruvate kinase molecular weight by the average aminoresidue molecular weight 37.3, then we can obtain the rough number of aminoresidues involved in the pyruvate kinase.
And it is about 250,000/37.3=6702 residues.
Multiplying the number of residue by the sum of number of nuclei and electrons per ressidue will yield the total number of bodies inbolved in the pyruvate kinase.
6702 (residues) times (18.65 nuclei/residue + 57.45 electrons/residue) = 510022.2 (2)
We must the 510022-body 3-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation with the external chemical disturbance!
All of the electrons are indistingishable. All electrons work simultainaeously to move the each nuclei to form the 3-dimensional comformation. I repeat that all electrons and nuclei work simultaneously. Both of the contributions from the many nuclei and many electrons are impossible to ignore, if we wish to gain some insights regarding the mechanism of the inner molecular world!
This must be, and can not be avoided to be the future direction of our biochemistry!
After this can be done, we may be able to consider what an alpha helix means, and works.
After this can be done, we may be able to consider what is happening in the beta sheets.
After this can be done, we may investigate what are side residues functioning.
Do you follow, Sirs?
A Pithecntropus Japonicus who, on the sand beach, is counting the number of particles of the sand
May 7, 2013